2009 - Liceo linguistico - Inglese
Sessione ordinaria 2009
Seconda prova scritta
CORSO DI ORDINAMENTO
Progetti: “BROCCA” – “PROTEO” – “AUTONOMIA”
Tema di LINGUA STRANIERA(testo valevole per tutte le lingue)
IOgni buon lettore ha in mente la propria biblioteca ideale composta da quei libri che si consultano spesso, si rileggono per coglierne le sfumature, si tengono nelle mani per il semplice piacere tattile di sentirli “nostri”.
Facendo riferimento alla produzione letteraria in una delle lingue straniere da te studiate, individua un’opera che porresti nella tua biblioteca ideale e giustifica la scelta mettendo in evidenza i motivi del tuo apprezzamento.
IIIn un’intervista rilasciata lo scorso gennaio al quotidiano La Repubblica, il sociologo polacco Zygmut Bauman ha individuato tra le principali preoccupazioni degli americani di fronte alla crisi “la paura che il loro standard di vita precipiti in un immediato futuro, la paura di perdere il posto di lavoro, il timore che la vita dei loro figli sia più difficile di quella dei loro genitori”.
Esprimi le tue considerazioni al riguardo, mettendo in evidenza le principali preoccupazioni esistenti nel tuo Paese dovute all’attuale crisi economica.
IIIL’attuale fase della migrazione globale impone una riflessione approfondita che consideri il doppio punto di vista: di colui che ospita e convive con la diversità, di chi abita in terra straniera e desidera integrarsi pur restando se stesso.
Esprimi le tue opinioni sull’argomento, mettendo in risalto come promuovere una convivenza multietnica che rispetti il diritto a essere diverso.
TESTO LETTERARIO – LINGUA INGLESE(comprensione e produzione in lingua straniera)
It was as if a curtain had fallen, hiding everything I had ever known. It was almost like being born again. The colours were different, the smells different, the feelings things gave you deep down in yourself was different. Not just the difference between heat, cold; light, darkness; purple, grey. But a difference in the way I was frightened and the way I was happy. I didn’t like England at first. I couldn’t get used to the cold. Sometimes I would shut my eyes and pretend that the heat of the fire, or the bed-clothes drawn up round me, was sun-heat, or I would pretend I was standing outside the house at home, looking down Market Street to the Bay. When there was a breeze the sea was millions of spangles; and on still days it was purple as Tyre and Sidon. Market Street smelt of the wind, but the narrow street smelt of niggers and wood-smoke and salt fishcakes fried in lard. (When the black women sell fishcakes on the savannah they carry them in trays on their heads. They call out, “Salt fishcakes , all sweet an’ charmin’, all sweet an’ charmin’.) It was funny, but that was what I thought about more than anything else – the smell of the street and the smells of frangipani and lime juice and cinnamon and cloves, and sweets made of ginger and syrup, and incense after funerals or Corpus Christi processions, and the patient standing outside the surgery next door, and the smell of the sea-breeze and the different smell of the land-breeze.
Sometimes it was as if I were back there and as if England were a dream. At other times England was the real thing and out there was the dream, but I could never fit them together.
After a while I got used to England and I liked it all right; I got used to everything except the cold and that the towns we went to always looked exactly alike. You were perpetually moving to another place which was perpetually the same. There was always a little grey street leading to the stagedoor of the theatre and another little grey street where your lodgings were, and rows of little houses with chimneys like the funnels of dummy steamers and smoke the same colour as the sky; and a grey stone promenade running hard, naked and straight by the side of the grey-brown or grey-green sea; or a Corporation Street or High Street or Duke Street or Lord Street where you walked about and looked at the shops. Southsea, this place was.
From Voyage in the Dark, by Jean Rhys
Answer the following questions.1. Where is the narrator?
2. What place does the character compare England with?
3. What doesn’t the character like about England?
4. What is the dominant colour?
5. How does the character feel in England?
6. Through which sense does the character mainly describe the two places? Substantiate your answer with reference to the text.
7. Which sensations does the character convey through the description of the English town?
8. Who narrates the story and from whose point of view is the story told?
9. What does the character miss?
10. What narrative technique is used in the passage?
SUMMARIZE the content of the passage.
COMPOSITION:In the passage the narrator, as Abel (1) puts it, “shows a sense of internal division” and at the same time “obeys a logic based on an associative process”. Comment on this statement in a 300-word essay.
Alternatively, think of a foreign country where you have been or that you feel attracted by and describe or imagine your feelings and sensations upon your arrival there. Write about 300 words.
(1) Abel, E. ”Women and Schizophrenia: the Fiction of Jean Rhys“, Contemporary Literature, XX, 2, Spring 1979, 155-77
TESTO DI ATTUALITÀ – LINGUA INGLESE
Decisions, decisionsDICTATORS and authoritarians will disagree, but democracies work better. It has long been held that decisions made collectively by large groups of people are more likely to turn out to be accurate than decisions made by individuals. The idea goes back to the “jury theorem” of Nicolas de Condorcet, an 18th-century French philosopher who was one of the first to apply mathematics to the social sciences.
Now it is becoming clear that group decisions are also extremely valuable for the success of social animals, such as ants, bees, birds and dolphins. And those animals may have a thing or two to teach people about collective decision-making.
Animals that live in groups make two sorts of choices: consensus decisions in which the group makes a single collective choice, as when house-hunting rock ants decide where to settle; and combined decisions, such as the allocation of jobs among worker bees.
Condorcet’s theory describes consensus decisions, outlining how democratic decisions tend to outperform dictatorial ones. If each member of a jury has only partial information, the majority decision is more likely to be correct than a decision arrived at by an individual juror. Moreover, the probability of a correct decision increases with the size of the jury. But things become more complicated when information is shared before a vote is taken. People then have to evaluate the information before making a collective decision. This is what bees do, and they do it rather well, according to Christian List of the London School of Economics, who has studied group decision-making in humans and animals along with Larissa Conradt of the University of Sussex, in England.
In a study reported in a special issue of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, researchers led by Dr List looked at colonies of honeybees (Apis mellifera), which in late spring or early summer divide once they reach a certain size. The queen goes off with about two-thirds of the worker bees to live in a new home leaving a daughter queen in the nest with the remaining worker bees. Among the bees that depart are scouts that search for the new nest site and report back using a waggle dance to advertise suitable locations. The longer the dance, the better the site. After a while, other scouts start to visit the sites advertised by their compatriots and, on their return, also perform more waggle dances. The process eventually leads to a consensus on the best site and the swarm migrates. The decision is remarkably reliable, with the bees choosing the best site even when there are only small differences between two alternatives.
But exactly how do bees reach such a robust consensus? To find out, Dr List and his colleagues made a computer model of the decision-making process. By tinkering around with it they found that computerised bees that were very good at finding nesting sites but did not share their information dramatically slowed down the migration, leaving the swarm homeless and vulnerable. Conversely, computerised bees that blindly followed the waggle dances of others without first checking whether the site was, in fact, as advertised, led to a swift but mistaken decision. The researchers concluded that the ability of bees to identify quickly the best site depends on the interplay of bees’ interdependence in communicating the whereabouts of the best site and their independence in confirming this information.
Adapted from The Economist, 13 February 2009
Answer the following questions.1. What sort of decisions do animals that live in groups make?
2. Who is Nicolas de Condorcet?
3. What is Condorcet’s theory about?
4. According to Condorcet, why are democratic decisions more likely to be correct?
5. What might make decision-making more complicated?
6. Why did Dr List do his research into honeybees?
7. What do honeybees do in spring?
8. How do honeybees advertise suitable nesting sites?
9. How do honeybees reach a consensus?
10. What does the computerized bees study tell us about the decision-making process?
SUMMARIZE the content of the passage.
COMPOSITION:Do you think that collective decision-making is important in society? What can we learn from honeybees on the matter? Discuss your views on the topic by referring to the article.
Durata massima della prova: 6 ore.
È consentito soltanto l’uso di dizionari monolingue e bilingue.
Il candidato è tenuto a svolgere, nella lingua straniera da lui scelta, la prova di composizione su uno dei temi suindicati, oppure la prova di comprensione e produzione su uno dei testi proposti per ciascuna lingua qui allegati.
Non è consentito lasciare l’Istituto prima che siano trascorse 3 ore dalla dettatura del tema.